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RADIATION PHYSICS, CONTRAST MEDIA, TECHNIQUES AND INSTRUMENTATION
Protection against radiation hazards : Regulatory bodies, safety norms, does limits and protection devices
SB Grover, J Kumar, A Gupta, L Khanna
April-June 2002, 12(2):157-167
There are various Regulatory Bodies at the international and National level, which lay down norms for radiation protection. These are the International Commission for Radiation Protection (ICRP) the National Commission for Radiation Protection (NCRP) in America, and the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) in India. These bodies recommend norms for permissible doses of radiation from X ray tubes and the shielding required for the walls of an X ray room. Data is also available from the work of Investigators regarding the room shielding required in a CT suite. The recommended lead equivalent in shielding apparel to be worm by radiation workers is 0.5 mm. The regulatory bodies also lay down safe dose limits for radiation workers and for the general public. The duties of the Radiation Safety Officer (RSO) are also specified by the regulatory bodies, as are the radiation surveillance and radiation safety programmers.
  107,510 2 2
CHEST RADIOLOGY
A pictorial essay: Radiology of lines and tubes in the intensive care unit
Sanjay N Jain
July-September 2011, 21(3):182-190
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.85365  PMID:22013292
A variety of devices are used in the intensive care unit for long durations. Each one of them is a double-edged sword: intended to save life, but life-threatening if in the wrong place. Hence, it is important to periodically check that these devices are correctly placed so as to prevent complications. The portable chest radiograph is of tremendous value in this context.
  68,483 11,132 -
HEAD AND NECK
Pictorial essays : Ultrasound features of thyroid and parathyroid lesions
SB Patel, SR Shah, KG Goswami, HB Patel
April-June 2005, 15(2):211-216
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.28805  
  58,597 4,611 3
MINI-SYMPOSIA-HEAD AND NECK
Imaging of skull base: Pictorial essay
Abhijit A Raut, Prashant S Naphade, Ashish Chawla
October-December 2012, 22(4):305-316
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.111485  PMID:23833423
The skull base anatomy is complex. Numerous vital neurovascular structures pass through multiple channels and foramina located in the base skull. With the advent of computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), accurate preoperative lesion localization and evaluation of its relationship with adjacent neurovascular structures is possible. It is imperative that the radiologist and skull base surgeons are familiar with this complex anatomy for localizing the skull base lesion, reaching appropriate differential diagnosis, and deciding the optimal surgical approach. CT and MRI are complementary to each other and are often used together for the demonstration of the full disease extent. This article focuses on the radiological anatomy of the skull base and discusses few of the common pathologies affecting the skull base.
  56,824 4,972 -
MAJOR PAPERS
MRI in white matter diseases - clinico radiological correlation
BN Lakhkar, M Aggarwal, JR John
January-March 2002, 12(1):43-50
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of MRI as an investigative modality in white matter diseases and to document its value in early diagnosis and management. This was done by studying the MR appearances of various white matter diseases encountered in our hospital with special reference to multiple sclerosis and correlating it with the clinical presentation. In addition, the most common diseases among them were identified. Materials and Methods: Forty patients with a strong clinical suspicion of demyelinating disorder were evaluated by MRI using 0.5 Tesla (Signa Contour, GE) scanner in a prospective study period of 2 years. Images were obtained in sagittal, axial and coronal planes using SE T1, PD and T2 and FLAIR sequences. Slice thickness of 5mm, FOV of 24 x 24 and 256 x 192 matrix were used. Results: Demyelinating foci were demonstrated with a high degree of accuracy on MR as prolonged T1 and T2 relaxation times, the site of the lesion varying in different disorders. Multiple sclerosis accounted for the majority of cases (37.5 percent) followed by acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (15 percent). Other causes like infections, toxic causes, periventricular leukomalacia and leukodystrophies comprised the remainder of the cases. In multiple sclerosis, majority of the patients presented in the third decade of life with a definite female preponderance (M:F-1:2). The most common symptom and site of involvement were visual impairment (73.3 percent) and periventricular area (80 percent) respectively. Conclusion: MRI due to its excellent gray-white matter resolution is very sensitive in detecting subtle demyelination, the sensitivity being still further enhanced by FLAIR sequences. The present study concludes that MRI, in correlation with the clinical signs and symptoms is an ideal modality in early diagnosis of white matter diseases and aids in the early institution of therapy so that the curable conditions among them can be treated.
  61,074 1 2
FETAL MEDICINE
Sonographic assessment of fetal abdominal cystic lesions : A pictorial essay
Rajesh Agarwal
October-December 1999, 9(4):169-182
  60,751 2 5
NEURORADIOLOGY
MRI evaluation of pathologies affecting the corpus callosum: A pictorial essay
Aamish Z Kazi, Priscilla C Joshi, Abhimanyu B Kelkar, Mangal S Mahajan, Amit S Ghawate
October-December 2013, 23(4):321-332
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.125604  PMID:24604936
The corpus callosum is a midline cerebral structure and has a unique embryological development pattern. In this article, we describe the pathophysiology and present imaging findings of various typical/atypical conditions affecting the corpus callosum. Since many of these pathologies have characteristic appearances on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and their therapeutic approaches are poles apart, ranging from medical to surgical, the neuroradiologist should be well aware of them.
  57,122 2,694 -
MINI-SYMPOSIA-HEAD AND NECK
Cystic masses of neck: A pictorial review
Mahesh Kumar Mittal, Amita Malik, Binit Sureka, Brij Bhushan Thukral
October-December 2012, 22(4):334-343
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.111488  PMID:23833426
Cystic masses of neck consist of a variety of pathologic entities. The age of presentation and clinical examination narrow down the differential diagnosis; however, imaging is essential for accurate diagnosis and pretreatment planning. Ultrasound is often used for initial evaluation. Computed tomography (CT) provides additional information with regard to the extent and internal composition of the mass. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has a supplementary role for confirmation of diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging may be needed in some cases for preoperative assessment.
  55,289 3,857 -
MUSCULOSKELETAL RADIOLOGY
Cysts and cystic-appearing lesions of the knee: A pictorial essay
Nicholas A Telischak, Jim S Wu, Ronald L Eisenberg
April-June 2014, 24(2):182-191
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.134413  PMID:25024531
Cysts and cystic-appearing lesions around the knee are common and can be divided into true cysts (synovial cysts, bursae, ganglia, and meniscal cysts) and lesions that mimic cysts (hematomas, seromas, abscesses, vascular lesions, and neoplasms). The specific anatomic location of the cystic lesion often permits the correct diagnosis. In difficult cases, identifying a cystic mass in an atypical location and/or visualizing internal solid contrast enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should raise concern for a neoplasm and the need for further evaluation and intervention.
  53,812 3,080 -
MINI-SYMPOSIA-HEAD AND NECK
Pictorial essay: Anatomical variations of paranasal sinuses on multidetector computed tomography-How does it help FESS surgeons?
Uma Devi Murali Appavoo Reddy, Bhawna Dev
October-December 2012, 22(4):317-324
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.111486  PMID:23833424
With the advent of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), imaging of paranasal sinuses prior to functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) has become mandatory. Multiplanar imaging, particularly coronal reformations, offers precise information regarding the anatomy of the sinuses and its variations, which is an essential requisite before surgery.
  49,349 6,987 -
SPECIAL ISSUE - PC-PNDT
Guidelines for ultrasound owners and owners of clinics, diagnostic centres, nursing homes and hospitals
Sanjeev Mani
April-June 2012, 22(2):125-128
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.101102  PMID:23162256
These are guidelines that are required for ultrasound owners for registration and use of ultrasound machines and are applicable across India. A brief description of the violations and penalties has also been listed.
  49,146 3,636 -
HEAD AND NECK SYMPOSIUM
Imaging in oral cancers
Supreeta Arya, Devendra Chaukar, Prathamesh Pai
July-September 2012, 22(3):195-208
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.107182  PMID:23599568
Oral cavity squamous cell cancers form a significant percentage of the cancers seen in India. While clinical examination allows direct visualization, it cannot evaluate deep extension of disease. Cross-sectional imaging has become the cornerstone in the pretreatment evaluation of these cancers and provides accurate information about the extent and depth of disease that can help decide the appropriate management strategy and indicate prognosis. Early cancers are treated with a single modality, either surgery or radiotherapy while advanced cancers are offered a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Imaging can decide resectability, help plan the precise extent of resection, and indicate whether organ conservation therapy should be offered. Quality of life issues necessitate preservation of form and function and pretreatment imaging helps plan appropriate reconstruction and counsel patients regarding lifestyle changes. Oral cavity has several subsites and the focus of the review is squamous cancers of the gingivobuccal region, oral tongue and retromolar trigone as these are most frequently encountered in the subcontinent. References for this review were identified by searching Medline and PubMed databases. Only articles published in English language literature were selected. This review aims to familiarize the radiologist with the relevant anatomy of the oral cavity, discuss the specific issues that influence prognosis and management at the above subsites, the optimal imaging methods, the role of imaging in accurately staging these cancers and in influencing management. A checklist for reporting will emphasize the information to be conveyed by the radiologist.
  42,358 6,282 1
RECENT ADVANCES IN MSK
Bone tumor mimickers: A pictorial essay
Jennifer Ni Mhuircheartaigh, Yu-Ching Lin, Jim S Wu
July-September 2014, 24(3):225-236
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.137026  PMID:25114385
Focal lesions in bone are very common and many of these lesions are not bone tumors. These bone tumor mimickers can include numerous normal anatomic variants and non-neoplastic processes. Many of these tumor mimickers can be left alone, while others can be due to a significant disease process. It is important for the radiologist and clinician to be aware of these bone tumor mimickers and understand the characteristic features which allow discrimination between them and true neoplasms in order to avoid unnecessary additional workup. Knowing which lesions to leave alone or which ones require workup can prevent misdiagnosis and reduce patient anxiety.
  44,679 2,304 -
COMPUTERS IN RADIOLOGY
DICOM, HL7 and IHE: A basic primer on Healthcare Standards for Radiologists
IK Indrajit, BS Verma
April-June 2007, 17(2):66-68
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.33610  
  39,976 5,475 3
MUSCULOSKELETAL ULTRASOUND SYMPOSIUM
Ultrasound of musculoskeletal soft tissue masses
Arun Kinare, Mugdha Brahmnalkar, Shalini D'Costa
July-September 2007, 17(3):201-208
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.34728  
Soft tissue masses have a varied presentation. Though all masses cannot be optimally imaged on USG, its easy availability, real-time capability, and cost-effectiveness, as well as the freedom it provides to examine in any direction, make it an automatic choice as a first-line modality. Though Doppler is an exciting modality, it has its limitations and is not always rewarding. USG is more useful for superficially located masses. The role of USG is to provide information about the extent of the mass, its nature, and its relationship to the surrounding structures. One important aim is to differentiate between a pseudotumor and a true mass lesion. Doppler can provide additional information in selected cases. USG can play a pivotal role in guiding a needle for obtaining a sample for tissue diagnosis. Benign lesions are more common than malignant ones, in day-to-day practice. As with any other musculoskeletal examination, technical expertise and a sound knowledge of musculoskeletal anatomy are important.
  40,722 2,945 1
BREAST, SOFT TISSUES & SMALL PARTS IMAGING
Pictorial essay : Sonographic differentiation of solid breast lesions
MB Popli
April-June 2002, 12(2):275-279
  42,894 0 2
MUSCULOSKELETAL ULTRASOUND SYMPOSIUM
High resolution ultrasonography of the anterior abdominal wall
Sudheer Gokhale
October-December 2007, 17(4):290-298
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.36880  
  39,618 2,257 5
MEDICAL WRITING
The "discussion" in a research paper
Ravi Ramakantan
July-September 2007, 17(3):148-149
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.34717  
  35,298 859 1
MUSCULOSKELETAL
Symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas- results of treatment with radiotherapy
HC Suparna, BM Vadhiraja, RC Apsani, T Seetharamaiah, DJ Fernandes, K Rao, K Vidyasagar
January-March 2006, 16(1):37-40
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.29042  
Objectives : Vertebral hemangiomas are benign vascular lesions occurring in spine. Though vertebral hemangiomas are frequently seen, they are rarely symptomatic. Pain is the commonest symptom. There is no agreement on single treatment modality for symptomatic lesions. Surgery, intralesional injection of absolute alcohol, methyl methacrylate injection are few methods used to treat them. Radiotherapy has been shown effective in many studies in terms of pain relief and at times in cord compression too. Results of radiotherapy in symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas treated in our centre are analyzed. Materials and methods: Six patients with symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas were treated with external radiotherapy to a dose of 36-40 Gy. Four patients had only pain as their symptom. Two patients had additional neurological deficits with paraperesis at presentation. Result in terms of pain relief was assessed at the end of RT and during follow up. Median follow up was four and half months. Results : Out of six patients, pain relief was seen in four patients who had only pain as their symptom. There was neither pain relief nor improvement in neurological deficits in remaining two patients. Conclusion : Radiotherapy is an effective and simple modality of treatment for symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas where pain is the main symptom without neurological deficits. It is non invasive and safe.
  34,683 638 5
GENITOURINARY RADIOLOGY
Doppler velocimetry of uterine and umbilical arteries during pregnancy
Bhushan N Lakhkar, Shefeek A Ahamed
July-September 1999, 9(3):119-125
Objective: To study the pulsatility index (PI), resistance index (RI) and systolic/diastolic (S/D) ratio of the "umbilical" and "uterine" arteries during pregnancy. To determine the normal range (mean + 2SD) for the various indices in our population. To also determine the statistical significance (P-value) of these values by comparing them with the abnormal indices in pregnancies that developed pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), and small for gestational age (SGA) babies. To determine which artery "umbilical vs. uterine" and which index PI vs. RI vs. S/D, serve as better indicators for bad maternal and perinatal outcome in PIH and SGA babies. To conclude whether a Doppler study can be an effective screening test. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 random pregnancies were screened at 20, 28 and 34 weeks of gestation. A color Doppler scanner with a carrier frequency of 3.5 MHz was used for studying the uterine and the umbilical arteries. Pregnancies with a normal outcome were used for calculating the normal range of various indices and for testing the specificity and negative predictive value (NPV) of the study. Those pregnancies with an abnormal outcome (PIH and SGA babies) were used for calculating the sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of the study. Results: In normal pregnancies, the flow velocity waveforms (FVWs) showed a good diastolic flow and fall in indices as pregnancy progressed. A low diastolic flow and high indices characterized the pregnancies with abnormal outcomes. The uterine artery had a better sensitivity and specificity as compared to the umbilical artery. Among the various uterine waveform parameters, the diastolic notch had the highest sensitivity and specificity. Among the umbilical indices, the PI had the highest sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion: Doppler provides a non-invasive method of assessing the fetal and maternal circulation during pregnancy. Both uterine and umbilical arteries have a low sensitivity at 20 weeks and therefore cannot be used as a screening test.
  33,341 0 4
COMPUTERS IN RADIOLOGY
Impact of computers in radiography: The advent of digital radiography, Part-2
BS Verma, IK Indrajit
July-September 2008, 18(3):204-209
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.41828  PMID:19774158
  25,263 7,569 -
NEURORADIOLOGY
Pictorial essay: The many faces of craniosynostosis
Paritosh C Khanna, Mahesh M Thapa, Ramesh S Iyer, Shashank S Prasad
January-March 2011, 21(1):49-56
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.76055  PMID:21431034
Craniosynostosis is a common condition in the pediatric age group, which may either be isolated or may present as part of a craniofacial syndrome. This pictorial review illustrates the underlying mechanisms and pathophysiology of craniosynostosis, the various types of craniosynostoses, common craniofacial syndromes and the role of imaging in their diagnosis and management.
  30,731 1,766 8
HEAD NECK AND FACE
CT scan variations in chronic sinusitis
K Dua, H Chopra, AS Khurana, M Munjal
July-September 2005, 15(3):315-320
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.29144  
CT Scan Paranasal sinuses has become mandatory for all patients undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery. It depicts the anatomical complexities of osteomeatal complex in much simpler way and acts as a roadmap for endoscopic sinus surgery. Fifty patients of chronic sinusitis were evaluated by CT Scan PNS - coronal and axial views. The anatomical variations and changes in osteomeatal complex on CT Scan were studied. In majority of patients, osteomeatal complex and anterior ethmoids were involved (88%). Agger nasi cells (40%) were the most common anatomical variations followed by concha bullosa and haller cells (16%). Apart from this deviated nasal septum was found in 44% of patients. The variations found on CT Scan were later confirmed on nasal endoscopy. All the patients then underwent endoscopic sinus surgery. This study revealed various anatomical variations which were responsible for the primary pathology of the patient.
  29,285 2,633 5
MUSCULOSKELETAL
Well circumscribed breast carcinoma : Mammographic and sonographic finding report of fine cases
N Shah, SB Patel, KG Goswami, YM Gohil, DM Shah
January-March 2005, 15(1):77-80
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.28752  
  31,303 563 2
HEAD AND NECK SYMPOSIUM
Imaging in laryngeal cancers
Varsha M Joshi, Vineet Wadhwa, Suresh K Mukherji
July-September 2012, 22(3):209-226
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.107183  PMID:23599569
Imaging plays an important complementary role to clinical examination and endoscopic biopsy in the evaluation of laryngeal cancers. A vast majority of these cancers are squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). Cross-sectional imaging with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging allows excellent depiction of the intricate anatomy of the larynx and the characteristic patterns of submucosal tumor extension. CT, MRI and more recently PET-CT, also provide vital information about the status of cervical nodal disease, systemic metastases and any synchronous malignancies. Additionally, certain imaging-based parameters like tumor volume and cartilaginous abnormalities have been used to predict the success of primary radiotherapy or surgery in these patients. Integration of radiological findings with endoscopic evaluation greatly improves the pretherapeutic staging accuracy of laryngeal cancers, and significantly impacts the choice of management strategies in these patients. Imaging studies also help in the post-therapeutic surveillance and follow-up of patients with laryngeal cancers. In this article, we review the currently used laryngeal imaging techniques and protocols, the key anatomic structures relevant to tumor spread and the characteristic patterns of submucosal extension and invasion of laryngeal cancer. The role of CT, MRI and PET-CT in the evaluation of patients with laryngeal SCC and the impact of imaging findings on prognosis and clinical management is also discussed.
  26,858 4,695 -
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